Feminisme dalam Studi Hubungan Internasional

Feminism Studies in the Internasional Relation

Tonny Dian Effendi

(Tjhan Fuk YIn)

What is Gender?

      Differences in biological sex

      Thought of as “natural”

      Biologically but ideological and material relations exist between men and women

      Masculine and feminine do not describe natural characteristics

      Individuals who are born as biological males or females are usually expected to develop “masculine” or “feminine” character traits and behave in ways appropriate to their gain

Study about Gender

       1920s and 1930s à study of character thraits abd “sex roles”

      the social function fulfilled by and seemingly appropriate to men and women

      men and women had particular characteristics which made them particularly well suited to the performance of particular social roles

       Cornell (1920s) included sociology and psycholgy in how differences between men and women

       1930s à prevailing sexual division of labour reflected the close correspondence between gender traits and sex roles

       1960s à sex roles were assigned by society

Male-identified roles were frequently seen to be more important and seserving of greater social rewards than female-identified roles (ex : bread winner vs housewives)

Rather than reflecting the personality traits of men adn women, ideas about geder were used to justify unequal tratment and thus provided an important ideological justification for a specific form of social inequality

       1970s à sex roled were deeply entrenched.

      the ascription of gender involved a highly complex system of stereotyping which was in turn supported by a whole range of social institutions and practices

      individual found themselves under a great deal of social pressure to conform to gender-stereotypical behaviour

Gender and Power Relations

       The ways in which biological differences became strongly linked to socially constructed “masculine” and “feminine” traits

       How these were then used to justify unequal relations between men and women

       Gender came to be viewed as a socially constructed inequality between men and women

       Gender roles  followed rather than preceded a hierarchical division of labour between the sexes and transformed previously existing anatomical differences into differences relevant for social practice

       Gender understood in social and political terms as a relationship which had meaning within social practices which, in turn, structured and supported social institutions

Perbedaan Sex dan Gender

Feminism and Feminist

      Feminism à a belief that women are entitled to enjoy the same right and previleges as men

      Feminist movement à to bring about changes that will end discriminatory practices and realize equal right for women in all sphere of life

      Feminist theorizing is not then purify an abstract academic activity, but an ongoing critical engagement with the world

 

 

LIberal Feminism

       Concerned with equal rights

       Human nature which stresses the capacity of human being for rational thought

       the individual’s capacity for reason which allows to exercise autonomy and to make meaningful choicesall human geings have capacity to think and act rationally

       Feminist found liberalism useful in challenging patriarchal authority justified by religious dogma

       Feminist were logically compelled to argue for women’s equality on the grounds that women, like a men, were rational beings capable of making their own decisions and determining their own best interests

       Mary Wollstonecraft (1792, Vindication of the Rights of Woman) àrealization of genuine equality entailed more than the achievement of formal rights

       Women not only needed to be granted the same right as men, but also needed to have aqual acces to education, and economic opportinuties

       Zillah Einstein à liberal feminisme involves more thansimply achieving the bourgeois male right earlier denied women

       LIberal feminism argued for individual right of women on the basis that they were excluded in individual accomplishments promised by liberal society

Marxist Feminism

       As a critique of liberal feminism

       The oppresion of women as a social groups is not a result of bias, or ignorance, or the intentional actions of individual; its product of the political, social and economy structures associated with capitalism

       Frederick Engels (1884, The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State) à women’s oppresion originated in the introduction of private property

      private ownership of the means of production by relatively few people. Originally male, inagurated as class system

      Capitalist society was characterized by a conventional split between “home” and the “workplace”; the “public” and the “private” spheres

       Marxist à the sexual division of labour as the root cause of women’s inequality

       Women providing capitalism with a valuable “reserve army” of labour which may be exploited at times of labour shotrages or used to keep male labour cheap

       Women help to maintain and reproduce an exploitative economic and social order

       Socio economiec and sexual inequality are inextricably linked

       Impossible for women to gain equality in class society. Women’s liberation must be apart of a wider struggle against an exploitative capitalist system

 

Radical Feminism

       Women’s oppression not as a by-product of capitalism, but rather as the root of all system of oppression

       The central concept is pathriarchy à “the rule of fathers”

       WOmen liberation does not only involve striving to achieve formal equality access to public space and to the means of production, but also involves a troughgoing transformation in the most private and intimate sphere of human relationship

       The values derived from women’s experience can be used to created alternatives to patriarchal society (Mary Daly à women culture)

       Radical feminism à “women centred” analysis à challenging all male-defined structures and values and finding alternatives to patriarchal society

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