The Intermestic (International-Domestic) Approach for World Food Problems Sollutions
On of the object that has still interesting to talk is about world food crisis. One of opinion about that was came from Colin Hines. He argued that to solved tha foor problems, specially for Third World countries is by going back to the local order and think again about the economic globalization
The writer has argued that, Hine’s opinion about back to the locallity can understood in two ways. First, back to local has understood by brought back the function of agriculture productions to the food purpose, not for industry. Second, back to local could understood as food production should focused on the local and domestic orientation first, than export oriented thinking.
To build the foor surveillance which local oriented, Hines made some conditions that must by fullfiled, specially the reformation of the World Trade Organization rules. First, tax and import quota that engrowth subsidiarity. It can be done by giving the chance to conduct the trade tax and import quota to limited the imported foods. The basic assumtion is as far as local food’s production should be the first priority and fullfiled by local farmer. Second, the change of WTO rules about property right. Now, WTO still following the rules that giving more advantages for the major countries that has financial and technical supporting power. For example the property right for seeds, plant and some natural resources. However, it is not imposible that the local farmer, actually has the knowledge about that seeds or other technical skills. The local farmers ussualy understanding that knowledge and skill as common property. Third, locallized the food’s rules. Some food’s rules has depend on western views that sometime was not suitable with the culture and condition in some Third World countries. For examples about irradiation food production, milk pasteurisasi and standarization of some product. Sometimes, this rules just give advantages for the big company. Fourth, build the farmer representative institution that brought the farmer’s aspirations. It is about the food’s price that can be suitabled with the farmer needs. It is propose to give the justice mechanism for food’s price to the farmer that mostly has experienced take disadvantages from the recent food’s price mechanism. Fifth, limitation of the export subsidiaries. Some irony when the developed countries promote the liberalization of protection policy for farmer in developing countries but in other hand they still protect their agriculture company. Sixth, understanding the impact of WTO’s rules for local market and farmers. Seventh, the farmer subsidiary like the low rates loan and the technical knowledge for cheap technology. All of this mechanism should included farmer’s representation as the subject and object of food’s policy.
The food’s problem was predicted for five years later. But this global issues has exploded in beginning of this year. Undertanding or not, this food’s crisis has begin on energy’s crisis. Crisis of energy has impact to the food sectors directly by the increasing of cost production and food’s distribution. In the other hand, food’s consumtion has increasing by the population explosion that has not meet with the increasing of food’s production. And the last problem is the needs of food for industry of energy.
This problems, should not understood as phisicaly as people’s needs and the stock of foods only, but we should analyse the production system and distribution in the international trade level. Neoliberal explained clearly about the consequences of the free market where every countries based on the market mechanism for determined the food’s price. It has brought impact for every countries to fullfiled their needs for production and changed their policy on food’sproduction to mass production. The problems has began when domination of developed countries to the food trade mechanism that could built the dependency.
Neo-functionalism argued the other solution by build a common networking each states that fair and take the food’s problem as common responsibility. Some international cooperations and organization was build to solved this problems. This trend has increasing for last several years. Began on Millenium Development Goals in 2000 untill the recent cooperations. The problems is that in that cooperation still be inbalance when the doveloped countries still dominated. This phenomena looks as the revitalization of the international cooperations in the countries complex problems.
So, the other choice like Hine’s oppinion about the localism of food production is interesting to be tried. It has meaning as brought back the agriculture production to the local food need fullfiled, not for mass industries. In this contect, there are revitalization of the local content from the actors (local farmers) untill the market orientation. Basically it is talk about the efforts to made food back on human real basic needs, not for money (industries)
Tonny Dian Effendi (Tjhan Fuk Yin) is teaches the Global Issues studies at the Department of International Relations, University of Muhammadiyah Malang.
Tonny’s home address at Jl. Batujajar I no. 30 Malang
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